Marking History Through British Buildings - Storytrails
Every sight has a story to tell

Marking History Through British Buildings

India is dotted with many old British buildings - some grand and iconic and some odd and quirky. Each of these buildings that the British left behind tells us something about their colonial journey in India.

India is dotted with many old British buildings – some grand and iconic like the Gateway of India, and some odd and quirky like the current Vivekananda memorial in Chennai that was once a British Ice House! 

These buildings tell us a lot about the period they belonged to. And on closer observation, you will spot a pattern that strongly corresponds to the changing status of the British in India. Their buildings were a reflection of the fears, ambitions and the practical concerns that the British faced  at the time. 

Many Indians see British colonial history as: “They came, they saw, they looted” (apologies to Julius Caesar). But when the British left, they  left behind some remarkable institutions, and some beautiful monuments that are in use even today. This post explores the British approach towards monument-building, during their long stay (1612- 1947). To simplify things, let’s divide this period into three phases. The phasing is not watertight and is merely an arbitrary device for understanding a long continuum.

Detour: Watch this short video about one quirky British building that still stands, but in a very different form from when it was first built.

Phase 1 (1612-1749)

In 1612, the British East India Company managed to get a licence from the Mughal Emperor to trade in India. Then, they were only small businessmen trying to make a fast buck in a brand new market. They had no territorial ambitions. And they knew that they were no match for the mighty Mughals, anyway. Building monuments was really not on their agenda. All they built were wharfs and warehouses to handle their business. They also built some fortifications mostly to ward off other European rivals, and some churches for their own solace. And many of these were over-engineered into lasting monuments. For instance, the St. Mary’s Church in Chennai, built in 1680, is the oldest active Anglican Church in the Eastern hemisphere, and the Fort St. George built in 1640, still has a military garrison. 

St. Mary’s Church, Chennai
St. Mary’s Church, Fort St. George, Chennai
St. Mary’s Church, Chennai
Staircases leading upto the St Mary’s Church, Chennai

Phase 2 (1750- 1857)

By the 1750’s, the British had become a stronger power in India. Their European rivals here – the Portuguese, the Dutch and the French, had weakened considerably, and the Mughal Empire itself was crumbling. The British now owned a vast army of Indian soldiers and it was a tremendous psychological and practical advantage. They were no longer meek traders, but ambitious raiders.  Following their territorial ambitions, they started investing in infrastructure. Their goods and armies had to be moved around, and the natives had to be impressed by their power. To make travel faster, the British introduced Railways in India. 

Royapuram Railway Station, Chennai
Royapuram Railway Station, Chennai, the oldest operational railway station in India
Writer’s Building, Kolkata
The erstwhile Writer’s Building in Kolkata. Today it is the official secretariat building of the Bengal state government

Gigantic Town Halls and administrative buildings were built, broadcasting the ‘superiority’ of British rule from the roof-tops. During this phase, churches became more ornate. And they invested in unlikely luxuries like warehouses for storing blocks of ice all the way from America! At that time, British investments in India were, both emotionally and materially, large enough to merit huge monument building.

St John’s Church, Kolkata
St. John’s Church, Kolkata. Also called the Stone Church, this  is one of Kolkata’s oldest churches

Phase 3 (1858-1947)

In 1857, the British ruthlessly crushed the Indian Mutiny and the very next year, Queen Victoria declared herself Empress of India. India became the British Empire’s most prized possession. British architects now unleashed their full creativity on India, designing beautiful universities, hospitals, railway stations, courts and museums. They had even evolved a new fusion architectural style called the Indo-Saracenic – a mixture of Hindu, Islamic and European styles of architecture. Guess who loved it, besides the British? The Indian kings! Most of the palaces constructed around that time are Indo Saracenic.

Mysore Palace, Mysuru
Mysore Palace, Mysuru, the palace of the Wodeyar Dynasty
Baroda Palace, Lakshmi Vilas Palace, Vadodra
The magnificent Baroda Palace in Baroda, also known as Lakshmi Vilas Palace
Khalsa College, Amritsar
The historic Khalsa College in Punjab’s Amritsar
Victoria Terminus, Mumbai
Victoria Terminus Railway Station, Bombay, c. 1905

In the ‘old’ quarter of some Indian Colonial cities, you can still find British Monuments from all 3 phases. And there is no denying that these monuments enrich the place by their presence, and enthrall those who take the effort to uncover their stories. 

Victoria Memorial, Kolkata
The pristine white Victoria Memorial in Kolkata
A Story by


  1. St. Mary’s Church, Fort St. George, Chennai, 1680 PC: Neetesh Photography
  2. Royapuram Railway Station, Chennai: By Darren Burnham – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
  3. Writers Building, Kolkata: By Paul Hamilton – Writer's Building, CC BY-SA 2.0,
  4. St John’s Church, Kolkata: Pic Credit: By Antaroop2010 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
  5. Mysore Palace, Mysuru: Pic credit: By Deepak B Jain – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,  
  6. Baroda Palace, Lakshmi Vilas Palace, Vadodra: By I, Bracknell, CC BY-SA 3.0,
  7. Khalsa College, Amritsar: Pic credit: By Joe mon bkk – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, 
  8. Victoria Terminus Railway Station, Bombay, c. 1905: By University of Houston – University of Houston Digital LibraryIndia Illustrated (Magazine)Franzheim Memorial Library Collection, Public Domain, 
  9. The Victoria Memorial, Kolkata: Pic credit: By PixaBay,



You might also be interested in

On the 13th of April, 1919, the British Army carried out a brutal assault on a large crowd of Indians who had gathered to peacefully protest against British atrocities at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. The massacre was one of the darkest episodes in the history of the Indian freedom struggle. C. Sankaran Nair, a nationalist and a celebrated lawyer, was one of the most vociferous voices against the act. This is his story.
Armenians have been known to travel far and wide in pursuit of trading opportunities for centuries. And India happens to be one of the places that they share a special connection with. Coja Petrus Uscan was one of the prominent members of the Armenian community of Madras in colonial times. A rather remarkable personality, he was known for his fierce loyalty to the British in India. Read on to find out just what made him so extraordinary.
How did a German missionary preach to the locals who spoke neither Danish nor German in the Danish colony of Tranquebar? He learnt Tamil, of course. And he became so proficient at it that he translated the Bible into Tamil. This is the story of Bartholomaus Ziegenbalg, the man who published the first ever translation of the Bible in an Indian language.
Elihu Yale was a British merchant and a Governor of Fort St. George during the British colonial rule in India. He amassed a huge amount of wealth through illegal private trading, and he supported a horrific practice that was prevalent in those times. So why is Yale University, a premier institution, named after him?